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        北京原材料鋼錠

        2019-10-31
        北京原材料鋼錠
        詳細介紹:

        鋼水經盛鋼包注入鑄模凝固形成鋼錠。鋼液在煉鋼爐中冶煉完成后,必須鑄成一定形狀的錠或坯才能進行加工。用鑄模鑄成鋼錠的工藝過程簡稱為鑄錠。

        鋼錠至今仍是軋鋼生產的主要原料。鋼錠質量的優劣、錠型的狀況以及其重量大小對軋鋼生產有著十分重要的作用。在軋鋼生產中除各類初軋機可選用鋼錠作原料外,一些特殊用途軋機、部分中厚板軋機也用鋼錠為原料,我國不少地方中小企業的開坯機成品軋機也選用小鋼錠作原料。鋼錠選擇的內容主要是正確地選擇鋼錠種類、它的重量以及斷面形狀和尺寸大小。


        鋼錠一般情況下大致可區分為以下幾類:


        未凈鋼

        鋼錠只經過了Z基本(低限)的脫氧處理。鋼錠凝固時,鋼錠模的四周及底部生成一層接近純鐵的金屬層,而碳、硫及磷等則于中央收縮孔附近生成偏折。金屬中的氧,會生成一氧化碳卷在金屬內生成氣孔,但氣孔會在熱軋過程中消失。未凈鋼的優點在于可獲得幾無缺陷的鋼材表面---表面幾為純鐵的緣故。絕大部份的未凈鋼含碳量均為小于0.1%的低碳鋼。


        蓋帽鋼(加蓋鋼)

        液中的氧使鋼錠的收縮中心附近的偏折情形,較未凈鋼為低,表面美觀,內部化學成份均勻,機械性質也較未凈鋼為佳。


        全凈鋼

        液中的氧早在凝固前便完全被脫除成限制在低限以內避免未凈鋼的邊緣效應。脫氧處理,由在鋼液中添加鐵—硅合金使鋼液中的氧反產生成熔渣而得到均勻的金屬液。


        半凈鋼

        半凈鋼介于未凈鋼與全凈鋼之間,鋼液中經加了少量的鐵——硅或鋁做為除氧劑,添加的量正好足夠去除未凈鋼的邊緣效應,使氧獲得充份的分解。

        真空除氧鋼(真空除氣鋼)

        藉由真空處理不需添加任何除氧元素,使鋼液得到充份的除氧效果且鋼中不生成非金屬介在物。處理過程是先增加鋼中的碳含量,然后將鋼液經真空澆鑄,此時碳與氧將反應生成一氧化碳而使鋼液中的碳與氧逐漸降至規定的水準。由于過程中未添加會生成固態氧化物的除氧元素,鋼質非常干凈。


        鋼錠

        除此之外,因澆鑄前鋼液中含氧量的不同,鋼錠分為鎮靜鋼、沸騰鋼和半鎮靜鋼三種基本類型。


        鎮靜鋼

        又稱全脫氧鋼,是凝固過程中鋼液內氧含量低到不會與鋼中碳反應生成一氧化碳氣泡的鋼。鑄前鋼液須經充分脫氧,如用硅和鋁脫氧,鋼中硅含量在0.3%左右,鋁含量在(0.02~0.06%)。鎮靜鋼錠均有縮孔,必須用帶保溫帽的錠模澆鑄。軋制后經過切頭,鋼錠成坯率為85~89%。要求成分均勻、組織致密的鋼材采用這種鋼錠。鎮靜鋼采用上大下小帶保溫帽的鑄模。近年廣泛采用發熱保溫帽和隔熱板保溫帽等以提高成坯率。


        沸騰鋼

        鋼液中含氧量較高(0.02~0.04%)、在錠模中發生強烈碳氧反應、生成一氧化碳氣泡,使鋼液在模中沸騰而得名。這種鋼凝固一開始,氣泡就形成并上浮。鋼錠表皮凝固成含鐵較純的殼層。當表層達到所要求的厚度時,在鋼錠頂部加上蓋板,使頂部凝固,阻止氣泡繼續逸出;也可在頂部加入硅鐵、鋁等脫氧進行化學封頂;也有用瓶口式錠模進行封頂。另一種方法是在鋼液凝固成表面層后即向整體鋼液中加鋁脫氧,這種鋼錠稱為外沸內鎮鋼。沸騰鋼一般采用上小下大敞開式的瓶口式鑄模。沸騰鋼錠成坯率高達90~92%,主要用于低碳鋼。


        半鎮靜鋼

        介于鎮靜鋼和沸騰鋼之間的鋼種。這種鋼內部氣體少,結構接近于鎮靜鋼。半鎮靜鋼澆鑄初期不產生氣泡,當頂部自然凝固封頂后(可采用瓶口模促進封頂),由于鋼液中碳和氧的富集和溫度降低,促使在鋼錠頂部產生少量一氧化碳氣泡,填充整個鋼液的凝固收縮空間。因此,可得到與沸騰鋼相近的鋼錠成坯率。半鎮靜鋼主要用于中等碳含量和中等質量的結構鋼,所用鑄模一般為敞開式上小下大型。

        脫模 澆鑄完畢的鋼錠,需待內部完全凝固后方可脫模。對裂紋敏感性強的合金鋼錠,脫模后應在熱狀態(>900℃)放入緩冷坑中保溫緩冷,或在不低于750℃溫度下熱送入軋鋼車間的均熱爐或加熱爐。


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        The molten steel is injected into the mold through the ladle and solidified to form a steel ingot. After the molten steel is smelted in the steelmaking furnace, it must be cast into a certain shape of the ingot or billet for processing. The process of casting a steel ingot by a mold is simply referred to as an ingot.


        Steel ingots are still the main raw material for rolling steel production. The quality of the ingot, the condition of the ingot type and its weight play a very important role in rolling steel production. In the steel rolling production, in addition to various types of roughing mills, steel ingots can be used as raw materials. Some special-purpose rolling mills and some medium-thick plate mills also use steel ingots as raw materials. In many local small and medium-sized enterprises, the mills for rolling mills also use small steel ingots as raw materials. . The selection of ingots is mainly to correctly select the type of ingot, its weight, and the shape and size of the section.


        Steel ingots can generally be divided into the following categories:


        Unclean steel


        The ingots have only undergone the most basic (lower limit) deoxidation treatment. When the ingot is solidified, a layer of metal close to pure iron is formed around the bottom and bottom of the ingot mold, and carbon, sulfur and phosphorus are deflected near the central shrinkage hole. Oxygen in the metal creates a carbon monoxide roll that creates pores in the metal, but the pores disappear during the hot rolling process. The advantage of uncleaned steel is that it can obtain several flawless steel surfaces - the surface is pure iron. Most of the unpurified steel has a carbon content of less than 0.1%.


        Cap steel (capped steel)


        The oxygen in the liquid causes the deflection of the steel ingot near the center of shrinkage to be lower than that of the unpurified steel, the surface is beautiful, the internal chemical composition is uniform, and the mechanical properties are better than those of the unpurified steel.


        Full net steel


        The oxygen in the liquid is completely removed before it is solidified to be limited to the lower limit to avoid the edge effect of unclean steel. In the deoxidation treatment, an iron-silicon alloy is added to the molten steel to cause oxygen in the molten steel to be reversely generated into slag to obtain a uniform molten metal.


        Semi-clean steel


        Semi-clean steel is between unpurified steel and all-purified steel. A small amount of iron-silicon or aluminum is added as an oxygen scavenger in the molten steel. The amount added is just enough to remove the edge effect of unpurified steel and make oxygen. Get a full breakdown.


        Vacuum deoxidized steel (vacuum degassing steel)


        By vacuum treatment, it is not necessary to add any oxygen scavenging element, so that the molten steel can obtain a sufficient oxygen scavenging effect and no non-metal intervening material is formed in the steel. The treatment process is to first increase the carbon content in the steel, and then the molten steel is vacuum casted, at which time carbon and oxygen will react to form carbon monoxide to gradually reduce the carbon and oxygen in the molten steel to a prescribed level. The steel is very clean because no deoxidizing elements that form solid oxides are added during the process.


        Steel ingot


        In addition, due to the different oxygen content in the molten steel before casting, the steel ingot is divided into three basic types: killed steel, boiling steel and semi-killed steel.


        Calm steel


        Also known as fully deoxidized steel, it is a steel in which the oxygen content in the molten steel is low enough to not react with carbon in the steel to form carbon monoxide bubbles. The molten steel before casting must be fully deoxidized. For example, deoxidation with silicon and aluminum, the silicon content of the steel is about 0.3%, and the aluminum content is (0.02-0.06%). The calmed steel ingots have shrinkage holes and must be cast with an ingot with a heat insulating cap. After the rolling, the ingot is cut, and the ingot yield is 85 to 89%. Steel ingots are required for steels with uniform composition and compact structure. The killed steel is made of a mold with a large upper and lower insulation cap. In recent years, heat insulation caps and heat insulation board insulation caps have been widely used to increase the blanking rate.


        Boiling steel


        The molten steel has a high oxygen content (0.02-0.04%), and a strong carbon-oxygen reaction occurs in the ingot mold to generate carbon monoxide bubbles, which is named after the molten steel boils in the mold. At the beginning of this steel solidification, bubbles form and float. The steel ingot skin is solidified into a relatively pure shell layer containing iron. When the surface layer reaches the required thickness, a cover plate is added on the top of the ingot to solidify the top to prevent the bubbles from continuing to escape; or a de-oxygenation of ferrosilicon, aluminum or the like may be added at the top for chemical capping; Capping. Another method is to add aluminum to the whole molten steel after the solidification of the molten steel into a surface layer. This steel ingot is called an outer boiling inner steel. Boiling steel generally adopts a bottle opening mold with a small upper and a large open type. The boiling steel ingot has a blanking rate of 90-92%, which is mainly used for low carbon steel.


        Semi-killed steel


        A steel grade between calm steel and boiling steel. This steel has less internal gas and is structurally close to killed steel. In the initial stage of semi-killed steel casting, no bubbles are generated. When the top is naturally solidified and capped (the bottle die can be used to promote the capping), due to the enrichment of carbon and oxygen in the molten steel and the temperature decrease, a small amount of carbon monoxide bubbles are generated on the top of the ingot, filling the whole. The solidification shrinkage space of molten steel. Therefore, the billet ratio of the steel ingot similar to that of the boiling steel can be obtained. Semi-killed steel is mainly used for medium-carbon and medium-quality structural steels. The molds used are generally open, small, and large.


        Demoulding The cast ingot must be demolded after the interior is completely solidified. For alloy ingots with strong crack sensitivity, after demolding, they should be placed in a slow cooling pit in a hot state (>900 °C) for slow cooling, or sent to a soaking furnace in a rolling mill at a temperature not lower than 750 °C or Heating furnace.

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