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        原材料

        2019-10-31
        原材料
        詳細介紹:

        鍛造用料主要是各種成分的碳素鋼和合金鋼,其次是鋁、鎂、銅、鈦等及其合金。材料的原始狀態有棒料、鑄錠、金屬粉末和液態金屬。 金屬在變形前的橫斷面積與變形后的橫斷面積之比稱為鍛造比。正確地選擇鍛造比、合理的加熱溫度及保溫時間、合理的始鍛溫度和終鍛溫度、合理的變形量及變形速度對提高產品質量、降低成本有很大關系。

        一般的中小型鍛件都用圓形或方形棒料作為坯料。棒料的晶粒組織和機械性能均勻、良好,形狀和尺寸準確,表面質量好,便于組織批量生產。只要合理控制加熱溫度和變形條件,不需要大的鍛造變形就能鍛出性能優良的鍛件。

        鑄錠僅用于大型鍛件。鑄錠是鑄態組織,有較大的柱狀晶和疏松的中心。因此必須通過大的塑性變形,將柱狀晶破碎為細晶粒,將疏松壓實,才能獲得優良的金屬組織和機械性能。

        經壓制和燒結成的粉末冶金預制坯,在熱態下經無飛邊模鍛可制成粉末鍛件。鍛件粉末接近于一般模鍛件的密度,具有良好的機械性能,并且精度高,可減少后續的切削加工。粉末鍛件內部組織均勻,沒有偏析,可用于制造小型齒輪等工件。但粉末的價格遠高于一般棒材的價格,在生產中的應用受到一定限制。

        對澆注在模膛的液態金屬施加靜壓力,使其在壓力作用下凝固、結晶、流動、塑性變形和成形,就可獲得所需形狀和性能的模鍛件。液態金屬模鍛是介于壓鑄和模鍛間的成形方法,特別適用于一般模鍛難于成形的復雜薄壁件。

        鍛造用料除了通常的材料,如各種成分的碳素鋼和合金鋼,其次是鋁、鎂、銅、鈦等及其合金之外,鐵基高溫合金,鎳基高溫合金,鈷基高溫合金的變形合金也采用鍛造或軋制方式完成,只是這些合金由于其塑性區相對較窄,所以鍛造難度會相對較大,不同材料的加熱溫度,開鍛溫度與終鍛溫度都有嚴格的要求。


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        The forging materials are mainly carbon steel and alloy steel of various compositions, followed by aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium and the like and alloys thereof. The raw state of the material is bar, ingot, metal powder and liquid metal. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the metal before deformation to the cross-sectional area after deformation is called the forging ratio. Correct selection of forging ratio, reasonable heating temperature and holding time, reasonable initial forging temperature and final forging temperature, reasonable deformation and deformation speed have a great relationship to improve product quality and reduce cost.


        Generally, small and medium-sized forgings use round or square bars as blanks. The grain structure and mechanical properties of the bar are uniform and good, the shape and size are accurate, and the surface quality is good, which is convenient for mass production. As long as the heating temperature and deformation conditions are properly controlled, high-quality forgings can be forged without requiring large forging deformation.


        Ingots are only used for large forgings. The ingot is an as-cast structure with large columnar crystals and a loose center. Therefore, it is necessary to break the columnar crystal into fine crystal grains by large plastic deformation, and loosely compact, in order to obtain excellent metal structure and mechanical properties.


        The powder metallurgy preform which is pressed and sintered can be made into a powder forging by hot forging without flashing. Forging powder is close to the density of general die forgings, has good mechanical properties, and has high precision, which can reduce subsequent cutting. The powder forgings have a uniform internal structure and are not segregated and can be used to manufacture workpieces such as small gears. However, the price of powder is much higher than the price of ordinary bars, and its application in production is limited.


        By applying static pressure to the liquid metal poured in the mold to solidify, crystallize, flow, plastically deform and form under pressure, a die forging of desired shape and performance can be obtained. Liquid metal die forging is a forming method between die casting and die forging, and is particularly suitable for complex thin-walled parts which are difficult to form by general die forging.


        Forging materials in addition to the usual materials, such as various components of carbon steel and alloy steel, followed by aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium and other alloys, iron-based superalloys, nickel-based superalloys, cobalt-based superalloys The deformed alloys are also finished by forging or rolling, except that the alloys are relatively narrow in plasticity, so the forging difficulty is relatively large, and the heating temperature, opening and forging temperature and final forging temperature of different materials have strict requirements.

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